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antibodies

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Autoimmune liver diseases (ALD) occur when the immune system turns against liver cells, leading to inflammation. Types of ALD include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The detection of specific disease-associated antibodies allows for a differential diagnosis of the culprit ALD, and helps to ensure proper patient treatment. Here we discuss the specific autoantibodies associated with either AIH, PBC, or PSC, as well as the techniques available for their detection.

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Less than a year after the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, the authorization of several novel COVID-19 vaccines has created hope for a healthier future. Recent studies have demonstrated that both humoral and cellular immunity play a role in protection from COVID-19. Additionally, the development of novel COVID-19 vaccines requires a look at the immune response in order to determine the effectiveness of the vaccine at preventing infection.